Thursday, May 21, 2015

Present Perfect Tense and Simple Past Tense

Pengertian Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu aksi atau situasi yang telah dimulai di masa lalu dan masih berlanjut sampai sekarang atau telah selesai pada suatu titik waktu tertentu di masa lalu namun efeknya masih berlanjut.
Rumus Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense dibentuk dengan auxiliary verb “have” atau “has”, dan past participle (verb-3). Have digunakan untuk Iyoutheywe, sedangkan has untuk hesheit, dan orang ketiga tunggal. Sedangkan past participle dapat berupa regular atau irregular verb.
Dengan demikian rumus present perfect tense untuk kalimat positif, negatif, dan interogatif adalah sebagai berikut.
Contoh Present Perfect Tense
S + aux. verb(have/has) + V-3/past participle
I have read the book
He has left
S + aux. verb(have/has) + not + V-3/past participle
I have not read the book
He hasn’t left
aux. verb(have/has) + S + V-3/past participle
Have I read the book
Has he left

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Adjective Clause

An adjective clause is also called a relative clause or an adjectival clause. A clause is a group of words that have a subject and predicate. There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent. Independent clauses are sentences because they express a complete thought. Examples are: “The dog ran away.” and “Get the door.” In the second one, the subject is implied. To explain the function of an adjective clause, we will look at dependent clauses.

Dependent clauses have the subject and predicate but can’t stand alone. They depend on another clause to have meaning. Examples are: “When you finish your work” and "unless I get more money.” With each of these, you want to ask “What?” because the thought was not finished. Dependent clauses are also called subordinate clauses and they start with a subordinate conjunction. This is the word that links the dependent clause to the rest of the sentence.  
Examples of subordinate conjunctions are: how, where, when, why, unless, although, after, as far as, as if, because, before, once, whether, while, now that, until, since, and unless.
The three types of dependent clauses are:
  • Adverbial (or adverb) - Adverbial clauses function as an adverb and answer the questions: when, where, why, how, and how much. Examples include: “Now that it rained a lot, the grass turned green.” and “I am much olderthan my brother.”
  • Nominal - Nominal clauses function as a noun and can be the subject, an object, an appositive, or a complement. Sometimes nominal clauses start with an interrogative like: who, what, when, where, how, who, which, or why. Examples of nominal clauses are: “They always fought overwho should pay the bill” and “Whoever did thisis in big trouble.”
  • Adjectival (or adjective)

Simple Past (I did)

Tom : Look! It’s raining again.
Ann : Oh no, not again. It rained all day yesterday too.

Rained is the simple past tense. We used the simple past to talk about actions or situations in the past

a.       Study this example :
§  I enjoyed the party very much.
§  Mr. Brown died ten years ago.
§  When I lived in Athens, I worked in a bank.

b.      Very often the simple past ends in –ed:
§  We invited them to our party, but they decided not to come.
§  The police stopped me on my way home last night.
§  She passed her exam because she studied very hard.
But many important verbs are irregular. This means that the simple past doesn’t end in –ed:
Leave     ––»     left        We all left the party at 11:00.
Go          ––»      went     Last month I went to Rome to see my friend.
Cost      ––»      cost     This house cost $75,000 in 1980.
The past of the verb be (am/is/are) is was/were:
        I/he/she/it was                          we/you/they were

   I was angry because Tome and Ann were late.


c.       In simple past questions and negatives we use did/didn’t + the base form (do/open, etc.) :
                                      It rained             did it rain?                        It didn’t rain


§  Ann : Did you go out last night, Tom?
Tom ; Yes, I went to the movies. But I didn’t enjoy it.
§  When did Mrs. Johnson die?
§  What did you do over the weekend?
§  We didn’t invite her to the party, so she didn’t come.
Note that we normally use did/didn’t with have:
§  Did you have time to write the letter?
§  I didn’t have enough money to buy anything to eat.
But we don’t use did with the verb be (was/were):
§  Why were you so angry?
§  Was Mark at work yesterday?
§  They weren’t able to come because they were very busy.

Sumber :  Murphi, Raymond. 1989. Grammar In Use. Australia: Cambridge University